Cebu City Zoo:

A reconstruction programme      


Historical background

                The present Cebu City Zoo was concieved in the late 1950`s by the Hon. Raymundo A. Crystal and due to his efforts and the help of the local Boy Scout organisation the appropriate land was donated in perpetuity by Governor Espina  in 1969.         

                Construction work on the zoo began in 1973.  The zoo was managed by Father Eleuterio Tropa  under the aegis of the "Lamplighters Foundation" until the death of Father Tropa in 1993,  when management of the zoo passed to the city authorities, but who have not formalised their relationship. 


Location and topographical information

                The zoo is situated above the Beverly Hills Residential area at the top of the Capitol Hills, in the Barangay (Civic District) of  Calunasan. 

                The zoo occupies 7.0 hectares of mixed forest land of which approx. 1 hectare at the upper, access, level is flat and where most of the present enclosures and administrative buildings are located.  A third of the remaining property falls steeply away to the valley floor and is partly terraced.  The rest has been extensively terraced and contains several potentiallv good exibit areas and observation points.  A central concrete staircase in conjunction with the inter-connecting terraces facilitates movement around the zoo.



                There is effectively no security fence covering the perimeter and even where a fence exists, in the area of the administration and storage, this is totally inadequate and offers no protection against intruders or stray animals.  The grounds are not patrolled by guards and there are frequent incursions by locals who remove trees and other material.

                The zoo has a number of enclosures and administrative buildings which are in varying stages of disrepair.  None of the enclosures fulfill even minimum requirements of animal husbandry for the animals which they contain, nor do they meet adequate safety standards for zoo personel and the public.              The administrative building, which also contains a library and zoo kiosk, is severely delapidated, insecure and too small for efficient utilisation.  Toilet facilities for staff and public are rudimentary and insanitary.

                Only the current access road into the zoo and itīs branch leading to the administrative building is in good repair, having been re-surfaced in 1995.  Other paths are in such a state of disrepair that some of them constitute a safety hazard for the public and zoo staff alike.



                At the present time there are two full-time male employees (paid P4,950 and P4,400 monthly respectively) to look after the animals and maintain the zoo grounds.  Neither of these have any formal training in zoo animal husbandry. 

                The zoo is directed by a female Administrator from the Philippine Wetland and Wildlife Conservation Foundation with a degree in biology and long-term experience in field work and Philippine conservation issues.


Animal inventory

At the moment there are 39 animals representing 21 species of mammals, reptiles and birds (Appendix F.) kept at the Cebu Zoo.  Eleven of the species are endemic to the Philippines and found nowhere else in the world.  A further collection of domestic animals are kept (rabbits, mice, guinea pigs and chickens) and are used to reduce the feeding costs.


Assessment report

                The immediate stumbling block to re-development is the non-status of the zoo.  The City Government has assumed ownership of the zoo after the demise of Father Tropa without ever having acknowledged its concommitant financial and managerial responsibility.  This has created an untenable position for those in charge of the ad-hoc structure left to organise the zoo on a day-to-day basis.  An MOA between the City Government and a responsible organisation (like PWCF) to take over funded management of the zoo should be given the highest priority to avoid future confusion, underfunding of animals and their husbandry, bureaucratic mismanagement and as to inspire confidence at every level, national and international, that professional, motivated expertise is in control of an environmentally important institution.

                Of prime concern is also the security aspect of the zoo.  Without adequate perimeter security, all improvements within the zoo are likely to be negated by theft and vandalism.  Investment in this area would inspire international confidence in the potential value of any donation.              

                The present buildings and enclosures do not serve the interests of animal welfare, efficient zoo management, conservation awareness education or public relaxation and entertainment.  Without exception they should all be replaced with new purpose designed structures (see Appendix A).  The basic layout of the zoo offers good opportunities for creating species-specific and aesthetically pleasing exibits in a natural, forest setting.  An investment (Appendix J.) of perhaps 10 million Pesos (circa $385,000) would create an excellent zoo and conservation center which could qualitatively compete with most international zoos and supply a much  needed public recreational area and a focus for education about conservation on Cebu.

                The zoo staff would be adequate to look after the currently held animals if they were able to concentrate on their work,  As it is, they are used for security, collecting entrance fees, staffing the kiosk, general cleaning duties, gardening, enclosure maintenance and procurement, in addition to caring for the animals.  At least three new staff are urgently required to maintain the zoo grounds and to act as assistant zoo keepers during rest and sick days.  Two further persons are needed for office work, staffing the kiosk and collecting gate reciepts.  A course of training for the keepers is also necessary.

                The urgent need for conservation in the Philippines ( even more so in Cebu) is an excellent underlying theme for a reconstructed zoo and the new logo should contain an endangered Cebu-endemic species - the Black Schama, Copsichus cebuensis, would be a good candidate (Appendix B.).  This new orientation would supply a framework for the species to be managed in the future (Appendix C.) and act as an strong magnet for visitors, both local and international. 

                In it`s capacity as conservation centre it would further serve as an educational focus for local schools and could earn additional income from giving lectures on conservation and biodiversity to schoolchildren - Mr. Jeff Brown of Cincinati Zoo has already given four such lectures in April/May 1997. It would also act as promoter for on-going in-situ projects in Cebu, like the seriously endangered, globally unique, Tabunan Forest, Mt. Manunggal, Balamban and the Island Wildlife Sanctuary on Olango Island, Lapu lapu City which ist internationally important to migrating bird species.  Additionally it should act as fulcrum for all the above conservation projects vis-a-vis eco-tourists.

                With it`s new image and an active financial engagement by Cebu City Council, local business groups and community organisations, as well as international governments and NGO`s, could be an important source of future support funding.  As the only such institution on Cebu Island and the only green area in Cebu City, the zoo could also look forward to a degree of self-financing from increased gate receipts (Appendix D.).











1.             Establish formal and legal status of zoo and who is empowered to run it.

2.             Reassessment of feeding strategies, implementation of species-specific diets and the fixing of short-term funding for feeding. (Appendix H)

3.             Rehousing of all currently held animals into species-specific enclosures and a thorough cleaning-up within zoo boundaries. 

4.             Up-dating of management communications equipment to save administrative time & costs.  Create zoo logo and design new notices, information signs and exhibit labels.  Create the basis for conservation education classes and integrate local schools and organisations at an early stage.

5.             Workshop on long-term collection plan for animals.  Evaluate the husbandry costs. (Appendix C)

6.             Establishment of medium-term funding from Cebu City authorities for costs.

7.             Erection of permanent adequate water supply facilities.

8.             Erection of a secure perimeter boundary and entry gate.

9.             Build new enclosures following the prepared master plan on fifteen year cycle.

10.           Build new office complex with kiosk/shop and seperate facilities for animal husbandry/works dept./quarantine/

11.           Build restaurant.






Richard Perron

Quantum Conservation e.V.

Heeder Dorfstrasse 44

49356  Diepholz


Tel: 0049-5441-82133

Fax: 0049-5441-82132


June 9th, 1997






















Appendix A


Master plan of Zoo

Plans of selected enclosures


Suggested infrastructure: not neccessarily in order of priority



Perimeter fence and new gate with ticket office, toilet and security accomodation


Administration building with toilets

Zoo school with toilets

Library and museum

Childrens Zoo and play area

Extention of road inside zoo leading to new service buildings

Food storage and food preparation building

Equipment storage room and workshop

Rest rooms, accomodation, toilets and showers for staff

Accomodation for visitors

Public toilets

Car park

Quarantine facility

Veterinary building




Urgent Enclosures

Parrot aviary                                                         designed

Hornbill aviary                                                      designed

Monkey enclosure - round                                 under construction

2 Monkey enclosures                                          designed

3 Civet cages                                                        under construction

2 Dove aviaries                                                     designed

Mynah aviary                                                       under construction

Heron aviary                                                         designed

Crocodile scenic pen                                           designed

Lizard and turtle enclosure                 designed

Vivarium                                                                Built

Terrarium                                                               Provisional only

Eagle aviary                                                          designed

Kite aviary                                                             designed


Enclosures needed in the future (not prioritised)

12 Aviaries                                                            3 Deer enclosures                                2 Wildpig enclosures  Walk-through aviary                                   2 natural ponds in lower area             2 Bat cages           

Insectarium                                                           3 Cloud-rat cages                                 Childrens zoo Consumption animals                                                Red-Panda cage                                   Cage for Spotted cats






Appendix B.


Zoo Logo


















































Appendix C.


It is not recommended that the zoo contain all of the species below, but the list is presented to show the wide range of suitable species. The zoo should focus on endangered philippine endemic species and use these to increase public awareness of the threats to biodiversity.



Warty Pigs                                                                                            Spotted Deer

Long-tailed Macaques                                                                        Tarsiers

Flying Lemurs                                                                                       Fruit-bats (Ptropus)

Small Leopard Cat                                                                                Bear Cat

Civet Cats                                                                                              Cloud Rats

Porcupine                                                                                              Anteater

Perhaps one or two exotic species (Red Pandas?)


Reptiles and Amphibians

Pythons                                                                                                 Monitors

Skinks                                                                                                    Lizards

Large Geckos                                                                                        Freshwater Turtles

Tortoises                                                                                               Frogs                                                                     



Herons                                                                                                   Ibises

Storks                                                                                                     Ducks

Hawks & Eagles (not Philippine Eagle)                                            Megapodes

Pheasants and Quails                                                                          Pigeons and Doves

Parrots                                                                                                   Kingfishers

Bee-eaters                                                                                             Hoopoes

Hornbills                                                                                                Woodpeckers

Pittas                                                                                                      Orioles  

Starlings                                                                                                Sunbirds

Flowerpeckers                                                                                      Finches/Mannekins etc.



Centipedes                                                                                            Millipedes

Bees                                                                                                       Preying Mantis

Walking-stick                                                                                       Large Cockroach



Butterfly guide only














Appendix D.

Projected Income and expenditure




                Entrance fee Adult P6, Child P3         (1,4 % Cebu pop.)                Visitors:   16,680

                                                                12,221 Adults;  4,459 Children

                                                                                                                Kiosk income:                       P   14,413.80

                                                                                                                Gate receipts:                        P   74,492.00

                                                                                                                Donations:                            P   15,037.50

                                                                                                                City subsidy                         P 232,200.00

                                                                                                                Total:                                      P 336,143.30


                Utilities; Electricity                              P   12,000.00

                Wages and Salaries                             P 220,200.00

                Office expences                                    P   15,000.00

                Animal feeding costs                          P   71,691.75

                Transport                                              P     3,328.00

                Maintenance, tools                              P            0.00

                Misc.                                                      P   13,923.55

                Investment                                            P            0.00

                                                                Total       P 336,143.30




Income estimate:

                                                                                Visitors: 18,000

                                                                                                Kiosk and shop income:                     P    15,552.00

                Entrance fee Adult P6, Child P3         Gate receipts:                                                        P    94,500.00

                                                                                                Donations:                                            P  100,000.00

                                                                                                Educational course Fees:                    P      2,000.00

                                                                                                City subsidy                                         P  569,648.00

                                                                                                Total:                                                      P  781,700.00


Expenditure estimate:  Based on no increase in animals (see also Appenix E)

                Utilities; Electricity                              P   12,000.00

                Wages (4 Workers)                             P 224,400.00

                Salaries (Director + 1 staff) P 180,000.00

                Office expences                                    P   24,000.00

                Animal feeding costs                          P 145,000.00

                Transport                                              P     5,000.00

                Maintenance, tools                              P     6,500.00

                Misc.                                                      P     5,000.00          

                Investment                                            P 180,000.00

                (known input at 15th May `97)                                         

                                                                Total       P 781,700.00









Projected on 5% of Cebu City population                       Visitors: 60,000


                                                                Kiosk and shop income:                                                     P      51,840.00

                                                                (Entrance fee Adult P8, Child P4)   Gate receipts:           P    420,000.00

                                                                Donations:                                                                            P    200,000.00

                                                                Educational courses fees:                                                   P        5,000.00

                                                                City subsidy                                                                         P 2,015,500.00

                                                                                                                                                Total:      P 2,692,340.00


Expenditure forecast:  Based on an increase in animals of 25% and 5% wage inflation

                Utilities; Electricity                                              P      12,600.00

                Wages (4 Workers)                                             P    235,620.00

                Salaries  (2 Staff)                                                  P    189,000.00

                Office expences                                                    P      26,200.00

                Animal feeding costs                                          P    213,670.00

                Transport                                                              P        5,250.00

                Maintenance, tools                                              P        5,000.00

                Misc.                                                                      P        5,000.00

                Investment                                                            P 2,000,000.00

                                                Total                                       P 2,692,340.00





Projected on 10% of Cebu City population.                    Visitors: 120,000


                                                                Kiosk, shop and restaurant.               Income:                  P    600,000.00

                                                                Entrance fee Adult P8, Child P4.        Gate receipts:        P    840,000.00

                                                                Donations:                                                                            P    500,000.00

                                                                Educational course fees:                                                     P        5,000.00

                                                                City subsidy                                                                         P 2,087,435.00

                                                                                                                                                Total:      P 4,032,435.00



Expenditure:    Based on an increase in animals of 50%                               

                                Utilities; Electricity                              P     18,000.00        

                                Wages ( 6 Workers)                            P   353,430.00

                                Salaries ( 3 Staff)                                  P   283,500.00

                                Office expences                                    P     30,000.00

                                Animal feeding costs                          P   320,505.00

                                Transport                                              P     12,000.00

                                Maintenance, tools                              P     10,000.00

                                Misc.                                                      P       5,000.00

                                Investment                                            P 3,000,000.00

                                Total                                                       P 4,032,435.00










Projected on 12% of Cebu City population)                    Visitors: 148,000


                                                                Kiosk, shop and restaurant income:                 P    740.000.00

                                                                Entrance fee Adult P10, Child P5.      Gate receipts:        P 1,295,000.00

                                                                Donations:                                                                            P    500,000.00

                                                                Educational course fees:                                                     P      10,000.00

                                                                City subsidy                                                                         P 2,056,507.00

                                                                                                                Total:                                      P 4,601,507.00


Expenditure:  Based on an increase in animals of 25% and inflation of 5%

                                Utilities; Electricity                              P      18,900.00

                                Wages ( 8 workers)                              P    494,676.00

                                Salaries (4 staff )                                   P    396,800.00

                                Office expences                                    P    120,000.00  (New equipment)

                                Animal feeding costs                          P    400,631.00

                                Transport                                              P    150,000.00  (New vehicle)

                                Maintenance, tools                              P      10,500.00

                                Misc.                                                      P      10,000.00

                                Investment                                            P 3,000,000.00

                                Total                                                       P 4,601,507.00



Projected on 15% of Cebu City population.                    Visitors: 180,000


                                                                Kiosk, shop and restaurant income:                 P    900,000.00

                                                                Entrance fee Adult P10, Child P5.      Gate receipts:        P 1,575,000.00

                                                                Donations:                                                                            P    500,000.00

                                                                Educational course fees:                                                     P      20,000.00

                                                                City subsidy                                                                         P 1,475,134.00

                                                                                                                                Total:                      P 4,470,134.00


Expenditure:  Based on 5% increase in animals

                                Utilities; Electricity                              P       24,000.00

                                Wages ( 8 Workers)                            P     494,676.00

                                Salaries (4 Staff)                                   P     396,800.00

                                Office expences                                    P       40,000.00

                                Animal feeding costs                          P     420,660.00

                                Transport                                              P       38,000.00

                                Maintenance, tools                              P       36,000.00

                                Misc.                                                      P       20,000.00

                                Investment                                            P  3,000,000.00

                                                                Total:                      P  4,470,134.00











Appendix E.


Monthly estimated feeding costs for current animals.


30 Kg                      Peanuts with husk                                                               P    600.00

12 Kg                      Puppy dog food (Pedegree Pal)                                         P    755.00

80 Kg                      Chicken pellets                                                                     P    800.00

45 Pieces                Goats heads                                                                          P 1,350.00

36 Kg                      Fish                                                                                        P 1,080.00

14 Pieces                Mice                                                                                       P    560.00

18 Kg                      Chicken                                                                                  P 1,080.00

14 Pieces                Day-old chicks                                                                     P    980.00

45 Kg                      Papaya                                                                                   P    675.00

675 Pieces              Banana  75 cent. each                                                          P    506.25

27 Kg                      Singkamas                                                                             P    351.00

27 Kg                      Other fruit in season                                                            P    675.00

27 Kg                      Cabbage                                                                                                P    405.00

60 Kg                      Carrots                                                                                   P 1.200.00

45 Kg                      Camote/sweet potato                                                          P    450.00

10 Kg                      Potatoes                                                                                                P    300.00

90 Pieces                Sayote                                                                                    P    225.00

10 Kg                      Kang kong                                                                            P    100.00

27 Kg                      Beans                                                                                     P    405.00

4 Kg                        Rice                                                                                        P      60.00                              

4 Kg                        Mungo beans                                                                       P    120.00

4.5 Kg                     Millet seeds premixed                                                          P    122.00

62 loaves               Bread or cake                                                                        P    620.00

2.5 Kg                     Powdered Milk                                                                     P    275.50

1 Kg                        Fruit juice powder                                                                P      60.00

2 Kg                        Sugar                                                                                      P      40.00

180                          Eggs @ P 2.50                                                                       P    450.00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Total:      P14,244.75


The above quantities are estimates (at current prices) based on species requirements and conversations with the keepers.  Some items are not purchased, but are supplied from animals and plants kept at the zoo - the costings are included for accounting purposes.  This practice of self-sufficiency could be greatly expanded and actual expenditure, particularly on chickens, fruit and vegetables, substantially reduced, although this would raise some additional labour and maintenance costs.  The estimate is therfore undoubtedly too high, but only time, strict adherence to the diet plans and intelligent adjustment of each quantity to fit the daily food intake will provide a more accurate costing.  To this end, all future purchases should be itemised with weights and prices and recorded in a ledger.










Appendix F



Animal Inventory



12th, May 1997



Philippine Palm Civet                                                           Paradoxurus philippinensis*                              1,0,0

Malay Civet                                                                          Viverra tangalunga                                              1,0,0

Long-tailed Macacque                                                        Macaca philippinensis*                                      6,5,0



Chinese Box Turtle                                                              Cyclamis                                                                1,0,0,

Sail-fin Lizard                                                                        Hydrosaurus pustalosus*                                  0,1,0?

Crocodile                                                                               Crocodilus porosus*                                           0,1,0

Crocodile                                                                               Crocodilus sp.      *                                              0,0,2

Reticulated Python                                                              Python reticulatus                                               0,0,3

Viper sp.                                                                                                ?                                                              0,0,1

Miniature Snake                                                                   ?                                                                              0,0,1



Cockatoo                                                                               Kakatue sp.                                                           0,0,3

Philippine Talking-Mynah                                  Gracula religiosa sp.*                                          0,0,3

Scops Owl                                                                             Otis scops sp.*                                                    0,0,1

Spotted Dove                                                                       Streptopelia chinensis                                         0,0,1

Philippine Green-winged Ground Dove                            Chalcophaps indica sp.*                                    0,0,1

Black-crowned Night Heron                                               Nycticorax nycticorax                                          0,0,1

Rufus Night Heron                                                              Nycticorax caledonicus                                       0,0,2

Little Egret                                                                             Egretta garzetta                                                    0,0,1

Rufous Hornbill                                                                    Buceros hydrocorax sp.*                                    0,0,1

Brahminy Kite                                                                       Haliastus indus                                                    0,0,1

White-breasted Sea Eagle                                                  Haliaetus leucogaster                                          0,0,1


                                                                                                * = Endemic species

                                                                                                E= Endangered
















Appendix G.


Maintenance equipment urgently required:


1              Vehicle for purchasing food and materials and transportation of personel and animals.

1              First-aid box.

4              Heavyduty wheelbarrows.

1              Arc-welding machine with accessories, 500 ft cable and welding rods.

1              Electric Angle-grinder.

1              Industrial quality electric drill with drill hammer and masonry bits.

1              Electric drill with HSS bits.

1              Bench drilling holder.

2              50 meter electric extension cables.

1              Chainsaw.

1              Water pump for cleaning ponds.

2              16  lb hammers.

1              Heavy wrench.

2              Heavyduty axes.

2              Bolos

                Rolls 6ft high interlink Cyclone wire

                Rolls 16 guage, 4 ft high welded wire 1" x 1"

                16 guage wire

                1 1/4" Angle bar

                1" Angle bar

                1" x  1/4" flat bar

                3 cm round steel pipe

                5 cm round steel pipe

                Electric outdoor cable.

                Outdoor electric neon light fittings.


                Building sand






















Appendix H.


Long-tailed Macaques


Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:

At least two sorts of fruit:                                  Peanuts                                                  At least two sorts of fruit

Bread                                                                                      Potatoes/cooked                                  Fish or meat

Carrots                                                                                   Seeds - sprouting                                 Insects

Water                                                                                     Green leaves/salad                               Milk/powdered

                                                                                                Fruitjuice                                               Water

* Once a week: 1 egg each




Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:

Water                                                                                                                                                     Meat or Fish


                                                                                                                                                                Dog pellets


Hard-boiled egg twice a week




Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:

Dog pellets                                                                                                                            Meat or Fish (chopped)

2 kinds of Fruit chopped small                                                                                                           Maize

Peanuts without shells                                                                                                                        Fruit (chopped)

Water                                                                                                                                                     Dog pellets


Half a hard-boiled egg every second day




Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:

2 kinds of fruit chopped small                                                                                                            Same as morning

Dog pellets

Seed mixture

Chicken pellets




Herons and Egret


Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:

Fish/meat in strips/frogs/mice                                                                                                           Same as morning











Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:

Dog pellets                                                                                                                                            Same as morning

2 kinds of fruit chopped small



Seeds/seed shoots




Once a week half a hard-boiled egg

Once a week some fresh cut branches

Change perch when all bark removed

Cuttle fish at all times in cage





Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:

2 kinds of fruit                                                                                                                                      Same as morning

Seed mix/seedlings

Chicken pellets




Half a hard-boiled egg each week




Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:



Eagle and Brahminy Kite


Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:






Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:


Once a week feed chicken/rabbit/other meat

Change water once a week




Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:

2 kinds of fruit




Change water daily                                                                                             




Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:


Once a week feed chicks/guinea pigs



Small snakes


Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:


Once a week (?) feed geckos/baby mice/insects(? toxic?)



Sail-fin Lizard


Morning:                                                                               Midday:                                                 Evening:

2 kinds of fruit

Baby mice/geckos/chicks

Ipil-ipil leaves

































Appendix J.



Investment by the Cebu City Government between 1997 and 2002.




1996 City subsidy                                                                P      232,200.00

1997 City subsidy                                                                P      569,648.00

1998 City subsidy                                                                P   2,035,500.00

1999 City subsidy                                                                P   2,107,435.00

2000 City subsidy                                                                P   2,056,507.00

2001 City subsidy                                                                P   1,475,134.00


                Estimated subsidy required                                P   8,244,224.00


           Probable subsidy limit                                              P 10,000,000.00



To relativise this expenditure, it should be noted that Heidelburg Zoo, in Germany, recently constructed one Polar Bear enclosure and spent  DM 11 million (P 165,000,000) and Hannover Zoo have just built one Gorilla enclosure costing DM 14 million (P 210,000,000).  Neither of the mentioned enclosures are for endangered species. 

Cebu has the possibility, with an investment of less than P 10 million, of creating a world-class zoo, creating a recreation area for the Cebu people, of creating a refuge for Philippine endemic species, offering the only public opportunity to be informed about the biodiversity of Cebu and its destruction and of substatially contibuting to the preservation of Cebu endangered species. 

There is no area in Cebu City for public amusement and relaxation within a natural setting - the zoo offers this facility.  Children who grow up in the city need personal experiemce of plants, animals, birds and reptiles to appreciate the wide diversity of their own heritage and culture.  Education is an important role of a good zoo and Cebu needs this educational medium.

In addition, the zoo would act as a breeding center for endangered Cebu wildlife species which could be returned to the wild either as re-stocking populations or as controlled re-introductions.  All of these programmes would be elegible for DENR support and funding.

The international community is also concerned about the preservation of species and funding for a zoo, particularly concerned with the preservation of unique endenic species, is expected to be related to the engagement of the local civic authority (financial investment ) in the preservation of biodiversity.

Nowhere else in the world is it so important to protect the wildlife and preserve the endemic animals as in the Phiolippines.